4015 Engineering Building III 911 Oval Drive NC State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7115 (919) 513-7671 Bioinformatics Building UNC Chapel Hill
BS in Electrical Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem,PA MS in Electrical Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, NC PhD in Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Research and Publications:
Medical imaging with PET, X-ray CT, MRI, and SPECT; Imaging simulation; Preclinical imaging, Simultaneous PET-MRI imaging in cancer and neuroscience; X-ray computed tomography; tomographic reconstruction; image processing; signal processing
Dr. Lalush's current research interest is in simultaneous PET and MR imaging, especially with respect to MRI-guided correction of the PET image for attenuation and deformable motion. He also collaborates with clinical scientists to develop new applications for PET/MR in cancer and neuroscience.
Dr. Lalush develops new technologies for X-ray imaging, including techniques for preclinical X-ray molecular imaging using nanostructured contrast agents, as well as system design and optimization for tomosynthesis and CT systems based on arrayed X-ray sources. Realistic imaging simulation is a key element of all research in Dr. Lalush's lab.
Dr. Lalush's expertise and past areas of research include tomographic reconstruction algorithm development; SPECT and PET imaging; X-ray system design and optimization; image processing; and signal processing.
The recent development of a combined PET-MRI scanner provides new opportunities to combine two important clinical and research imaging techniques, while also introducing unique challenges. The PET-MRI scanner can acquire inherently-registered PET and MRI images simultaneously, exploiting the complementary nature of the two modalities in anatomical, structural, and functional images. In collaboration with several researchers at the UNC Biomedical Research Imaging Center, we are addressing technical issues, exploiting unique opportunities, and developing new applications for PET-MRI.
We partner with clinical colleagues to perform human-subjects studies for applications of PET-MRI in cancer and neuroscience. We currently have studies examining the potential for imaging to provide early prediction of response to neoadjuvant radiation therapy in high-grade sarcomas, and the potential for PET-MRI to provide additional information to inform surgical decisions in breast cancer.
Simultaneous PET-MRI offers the possibility of using MR images to correct PET for motion blurring. PET targets in the upper abdomen, such as the liver and pancreas, move during the PET acquisition as the patient breathes, resulting in errors in quantitative estimates of PET uptake Anatomical MRI images taken during the PET acquisition can be used to track the nonrigid motion of the organs, and these estimated motion fields may then be used as the basis for warping the PET solution into a motion-free state. We are developing MR techniques for quickly scanning the patient during PET acquisition and relating these fast images to 3D motion models of the patient acquired prior to PET scanning. We are also integrating 3D motion fields into PET reconstruction to perform the motion correction, and using efficient GPU hardware to perform the intensive computations.
PET and MRI measure different properties of tissue; in fact, MRI may be used in different ways to obtain multiple images of tissue emphasizing different properties. We are investigating the use of pattern analysis methods on multiple PET and MRI images to classify tissues into subtypes.
Using a CdTe energy-sensitive detector, it is possible to acquire micro-CT data for a series of individual energies in a single scan, producing a set of effectively monochromatic CT images. By exploiting known properties of the absorption spectra of materials in a reconstruction algorithm, we can reduce noise in such images and improve the ability to distinguish different materials by their absorption spectra. This makes possible the imaging, separation, and quantitation of multiple functionalized metallic nanoparticles in a single scan.
1. Y. Wang, G. Ma, L. An, F. Shi, P. Zhang, D. S. Lalush, X. Wu, J. Zhou, D. Shen, “Semi-supervised tripled dictionary learning for standard-dose PET image prediction using low-dose PET and multimodal MRI,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, in press, 2016.
2. L. An, P. Zhang, E. Adeli-Mosabbeb, Y. Wang, G. Ma, F. Shi, D. S. Lalush, W. Lin, D. Shen, “Multi-level canonical correlation analysis for standard-dose PET image estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, in press, 2016.
3. S. A. Brooks, A. H. Khandani, J. R. Fielding, W. Lin, T. Sills, Y. Lee, A. Arreola, M. I. Milowsky, E. M. Wallen, M. E. Woods, A. B. Smith, M. E. Nielsen, J. S. Parker, D. S. Lalush, and W. K. Rathmell, “Alternate metabolic programs define regional variation of relevant biological features in renal cell carcinoma progression,” Clinical Cancer Research, Jan 19, 2016. (PMID: 26787754)
4. J. R. Merrill, K. Krajewski, H. Yuan, J. E. Frank, D. S. Lalush, C. Patterson, and A. Veleva, “Synthesis and comparative evaluation of novel 64Cu-labeled high affinity cell-specific peptides for positron emission tomography imaging of tumor vasculature,” Biomaterials, vol. 84, pp. 241-249, 2016. (PMID: 26839954)
5. Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. An, G. Ma, J. Kang, F. Shi, X. Wu, J. Zhou, D. S> Lalush, W. Lin, and D. Shen, “Predicting standard-dose PET image from low-dose PET and multimodal MR images using mapping-based sparse representation,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 61, pp. 791-812, 2016. (PMID 26732849)
6. J. Kang, Y. Gao, F. Shi, D. S. Lalush, W. Lin, and D. Shen, “Prediction of standard-dose PET image with MRI and low-dose PET images,” Medical Physics, vol. 42, pp. 5301-5309, 2015. (PMID 26328979)
7. J. E. Rodriguez, J. Y. Liao, J. He, J. C. Schisler, C. B. Newgard, D. Drujan, D. J. Glass, C. B. Frederick, B. C. Yoder, D. S. Lalush, C. Patterson, and M. Willis, “The ubiquitin ligase MuRF1 regulates PPARα activity in the heart by enhancing nuclear export via monoubiquitination.” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 413, pp. 36-48, 2015. (PMID 26116825)
8. M. R. Juttukonda, B. G. Mersereau, Y. Chen, Y. Su, B. G. Rubin, T. L. S. Benzinger, D. S. Lalush, and H. An, “MR-based attenuation correction for PET/MRI neurological studies with continuous-valued attenuation coefficients for bone through a conversion from R2* to CT-Hounsfield units,” Neuroimage, vol. 12, pp. 160-168, 2015. (PMID 25776213)
9. Y. Chen, M. Juttukonda, Y. Su, T. Benzinger, B. G. Rubin, Y. Z. Lee, W. Lin, D. Shen, D. Lalush, and H. An, “Probabilistic air segmentation and sparse regression estimated pseudo CT for PET/MR attenuation correction,” Radiology, vol. 275, pp. 562-569, 2015. (PMID 25521778)
10. Charoenpanich, A., M. E. Wall, C. J. Tucker, D. M. Andrews, D. S. Lalush, D. R. Dirschl, and E. G. Loboa, “Cyclic tensile strain enhances osteogenesis and angiogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells from osteoporotic donors,” Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 20, pp. 67-78, 2014.
11. Patterson, C., C. B. Frederick, H. Yuan, P. Lockyer, D. S. Lalush, and A. N. Veleva, “Development of a new positron emission tomography tracer for targeting tumor angiogenesis: synthesis, small animal imaging, and radiation dosimetry,” Molecules, vol. 18, pp. 5594-5610, 2013.
12. Dimeo, A. J., D. S. Lalush, E. Grant, and J. A. Morcuende, “Development of a surrogate biomodel for the investigation of clubfoot bracing,” Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, vol. 32, pp. e47-e52, 2012.
13. Gonzales, B. G., and D. S. Lalush, “Eigenvector decomposition of full-spectrum X-ray computed tomography,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 57, pp. 1309-1323, 2012.
14. Charoenpanich; A., M. E. Wall; C. J. Tucker; D. M. K. Andrews; D. S. Lalush; and E. G. Loboa, “Microarray analysis of human adipose-derived stem cells in three-dimensional collagen culture: osteogenesis inhibits bone morphogenic protein and Wnt signaling pathways, and cyclic tensile strain causes upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine regulators and angiogenic factors,” Tissue Engineering Part A, vol. 17, pp. 2615-2627, 2011.
15. Veleva, A. N., D.B. Nepal, D. S. Paul, C. B. Frederick, J. Schwab, P. Lockyer, H. Yuan, D. S. Lalush, and C. Patterson, “Efficient in vivo selection of a novel tumor-associated peptide from a phage display library,” Molecules, vol. 16, pp. 900-914, 2011.
16. Gonzales, B. G., and D. S. Lalush, “Full-spectrum CT reconstruction using a weighted least squares algorithm with an energy-axis penalty,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 30, pp. 173-183, 2011.
17. Quan, E. M., and D. S. Lalush, “Three-dimensional imaging properties of rotation-free square and hexagonal micro-CT systems,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 29, pp. 916-923, 2010.
18. Segars, W. P., D. S. Lalush, E. C. Frey, D. Minocha, M. A. King, and B. M. W. Tsui, “Improved dynamic cardiac phantom based on 4D NURBS and tagged MRI,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 56, pp. 2728-2738, 2009.
19. Connor, D. M., H. D. Hallen, D. S. Lalush, D. R. Sumner, and Z. Zhong, “Comparison of diffraction enhanced computed tomography and monochromatic synchrotron radiation computed tomography of human trabecular bone,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 54, pp. 6123-6133, 2009.
20. Qian, X., R. Rajaram, X. Calderon-Colon, G. Yang, T. Phan, D. S Lalush, J. Lu, and O. Zhou, “Design and characterization of a spatially distributed multi-beam field emission x-ray source for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis,” Medical Physics, vol. 36, pp. 4389-4399, 2009.
21. Cao, G., Y. Z. Lee, R. Peng, Z. Liu, R. Rajaram, X. Calderon-Colon, L. An, T. Phan, S. Sultana, D. S. Lalush, J. P. Lu, and O. Zhou, “A dynamic micro-CT scanner based on a carbon nanotube field emission X-ray source,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 54, 2323-2340, 2009.11
22. Quan, E. and D. S. Lalush, “A faster ordered-subset convex algorithm for iterative reconstruction,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 54, pp. 1061-1072, 2009.
23. Lalush, D. S., “Binary encoding of multiplexed images in mixed noise,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 27, pp. 1323-1332, 2008.
24. Lalush, D. S., “CT, PET, and SPECT Reconstruction Algorithms,” in Advances in Medical Physics − 2008. A. B. Wolbarst and W. R. Hendee (Eds.). Madison: Medical Physics Publishing, 2008.
25. Pfeiler, T. W., D. S. Lalush, and E. G. Loboa, “Semiautomated Finite Element Mesh Generation Methods for a Long Bone,” Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 85, pp. 196-202, 2007.
26. Lalush, D. S., M. K. Jatko, and W. P. Segars, “An observer study methodology for evaluating detection of motion abnormalities in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 52, pp. 480-485, 2005.
27. Zhang, J., Y. Cheng, Y. Z. Lee, B. Gao, Q. Qiu, W. L. Lin, D. Lalush, J. P. Lu, and O. Zhou, “A nanotube-based field emission X-ray source for microcomputed tomography,” Review of Scientific Instruments, vol. 76, 094301, 2005.
28. Wang, W.-T., E. C. Frey, B. M. W. Tsui, D. S. Lalush, and C. Tocharoenchai, “Optimization of acquisition parameters for simultaneous 201-Tl and 99m-Tc dual-isotope myocardial imaging,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 52, pp. 1227-1235, 2005.
29. Lalush, D. S., “Characterization, modeling, and simulation of mouse microarray images,” in Methods of Microarray Data Analysis III, (Eds, S. Lin and K. Johnson), Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston, 2003.
30. Lalush, D. S. and M. A. Wernick, “Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms,” in Emission Tomography: The Fundamentals of PET and SPECT, (Eds. M. A. Wernick and J. N. Aarsvold), Academic Press: San Diego, 2005.
31. Lalush, D. S., and A. J. DiMeo, “A Monte Carlo investigation of dual-planar circular-orbit cone-beam SPECT,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 47, pp. 4357-4370, 2002.
32. Lalush, D. S., and A. J. DiMeo, “An observer study evaluating dual-planar circular-orbit cone-beam brain SPECT,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 43, pp. 1578-1583, 2002.
33. Segars, W. P., D. S. Lalush, and B. M. W. Tsui, “Modeling respiratory mechanics in the MCAT and spline-based MCAT phantoms,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 48, pp. 89-97, 2001.
34. Lalush, D. S. and B. M. W. Tsui, “Fast transmission CT reconstruction for SPECT using a block-iterative algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 47, pp. 1123-1129, 2000.
35. Lalush, D. S., E. C. Frey, and B. M. W. Tsui, “Fast maximum entropy approximation in SPECT using the RBI-MAP algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 19, pp. 286-294, 2000.
36. Lalush, D. S. and B. M. W. Tsui, “Performance of ordered subset reconstruction algorithms under conditions of extreme attenuation and truncation in cardiac SPECT,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 41, pp. 737-744, 2000.
37. Tsui, B. M. W., W. P. Segars, and D. S. Lalush, “Effects of upward creep and respiratory motion in myocardial SPECT,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 47, pp. 1192-1195, 2000.
38. Lalush, D. S., “Fourier rebinning applied to multiplanar circular-orbit cone-beam SPECT,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 18, pp. 1076-1084, 1999.
39. Wollenweber, S. D., B. M. W. Tsui, D. S. Lalush, E. C. Frey, K. J. LaCroix, and G. T. Gullberg, “Comparison of Hotelling observer models and human observers in defect detection from myocardial SPECT imaging,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 46, pp. 2098-2103, 1999.
40. Segars, W. P., D. S. Lalush, and B. M. W. Tsui, “A realistic spline-based dynamic heart phantom,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 46, pp. 503-506, 1999.
41. Lalush, D. S., and B. M. W. Tsui, “Mean-variance analysis of block-iterative reconstruction algorithms modeling 3D detector response in SPECT,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 45, pp.1280-1287, 1998.
42. Lalush, D. S., and B. M. W. Tsui, “Block-iterative techniques for fast 4D reconstruction using a priori motion models in gated cardiac SPECT,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 43, pp. 875-886, 1998.
43. Wollenweber, S. D., D. S. Lalush, B. M. W. Tsui, and G. T. Gullberg, “Evaluation of myocardial defect detection between parallel-hole and fan-beam SPECT using the Hotelling trace,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 45, pp. 2205-2210, 1998.
44. Tsui, B. M. W., E. C. Frey, K. J. LaCroix, D. S. Lalush, W. H. McCartney, M. A. King, and G. T. Gullberg, “Quantitative myocardial perfusion SPECT,” Journal of Nuclear Cardiology, vol. 5, pp. 507-522, 1998.
45. Lalush, D. S., and B. M. W. Tsui, “Space-Time Gibbs Priors Applied to Gated SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Studies,” Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 209-223, 1996.
46. Lalush, D. S., and B. M. W. Tsui, “A fast and stable maximum a posteriori conjugate gradient reconstruction algorithm,” Medical Physics, vol. 22, pp. 1273-1284, 1995.
47. DiBella, E. V. R., R. L. Eisner, L. S. Schmarkey, A. B. Barclay, R. E. Patterson, D.J. Nowak, D. S. Lalush, and B. M. W. Tsui, “Heterogeneity of SPECT bull’s-eyes in normal dogs: comparison of attenuation compensation algorithms,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 42, pp. 1290-1296, 1995.
48. Lalush, D. S., and B. M. W. Tsui, “Improving the convergence of iterative filtered backprojection algorithms,” Medical Physics, vol. 21, pp. 1283-1286, 1994.
49. Zhao, X.D., B. M. W. Tsui, G. K. Gregoriou, D. S. Lalush, J. Li, and R. L. Eisner, “Evaluation of corrective reconstruction methods using a 3D cardiac-torso phantom and bull’s-eye plots,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 41, pp. 2831-2837, 1994.
50. Tsui, B. M. W., E. C. Frey, X.-D. Zhao, D. S. Lalush, R. E. Johnston, and W. H. McCartney, “The importance and implementation of accurate three-dimensional compensation methods for quantitative SPECT,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 39, pp. 509-530, 1994.
51. Lalush, D. S., and B. M. W. Tsui, “A generalized Gibbs prior for maximum a posteriori reconstruction in SPECT,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 38, pp. 729-741, 1993.
52. Lalush, D. S., and B. M. W. Tsui, “Attenuation and detector response compensations used with Gibbs prior distributions for maximum a posteriori reconstruction in SPECT,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 39, pp. 1454-1459, 1992.
53. Lalush, D. S., and B. M. W. Tsui, “Simulation evaluation of Gibbs prior distributions for use in maximum a posteriori SPECT reconstructions,” IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 11, pp. 267-275, 1992.